Electrosprayed Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles
Cerium oxide nanoparticles were fabricated via the calcination of electrosprayed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/cerium nitrate nanoparticles. The effect of material variables of PVA/cerium nitrate electrospraying solution, i.e. viscosity, surface tension and electrical conductivity, as well as important process variables like voltage, nozzle–collector distance and feed rate on cerium oxide nanoparticle size, are investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis have also been carried out. The results showed that electrospraying of PVA/cerium nitrate (25% w/v) was only possible with PVA concentrations in the range of 5–8% w/v. With other conditions constant, decreasing PVA concentration, decreasing feed rate, increasing nozzle–collector distance and increasing voltage decreased the size of the final cerium oxide nanoparticles. The gross average size of all cerium oxide nanoparticles obtained in this work was about 80 nm. FTIR analysis proved the formation of cerium oxide after the calcination process.